Les centaines de milliers de Tchadiens qui ont fui la violence des groupes armés subissent la triple peine de l’exil, de la famine et du changement climatique.

Boudoumi est l’un des 23 000 exilés du camp d’Amma situé dans la province du lac Tchad. Il se rappelle précisement de ce matin du 23 mars 2021. L’octagénaire se rendait à la mosquée pour la première prière du jour quand des hommes armés ont pris d’assaut son village situé sur la presqu’île de Bohoma.

Devant lui, certains sont tombés, sans pouvoir jamais se relever. D’autres ont pris la fuite pour survivre. Boudoumi, amputé d’un bras à l’issue de six mois d’hospitalisation, fait partie de ces déplacés, un terme humanitaire qui peine à décrire le drame vécu par ces victimes d’un conflit asymétrique qui fait rage dans la région depuis 2015. Des groupes armés – Boko Haram et plus récemment l’organisation Etat islamique en Afrique de l’Ouest (Iswap) – y sèment la terreur et ont mis sur la route plus de 425 000 Tchadiens, originaires principalement des îles.

Voir aussi : Reportage vidéo au lac Tchad, ravagé par le djihadisme, la famine et le changement climatique

Pêcheurs, agriculteurs, éleveurs ont été contraints d’abandonner leurs terres fertiles pour se retrancher à l’est du lac dans l’un des 196 sites de déplacés. Ces survivants subissent la triple peine de l’exil, de la famine et des effets du changement climatique dans une zone en proie aux sécheresses répétées. Peu médiatisée, cette crise humanitaire est pourtant l’une des plus graves du continent africain.

Le Monde Afrique est allé à la rencontre de ces déplacés. Ces photographies sont signées Andrew Caballero-Reynolds.

A women packages up food given to her by the WFP in Fourkoulom refugee camp in Baga Sola, Chad on May 11, 2022. The camp was setup with the help of EU Humanitarian Aid after people in Nigeria fled violence from Boko Haram.

A woman holds her baby at the Kousseri refugee camp in Baga Sola, Chad on May 11, 2022. The camp was setup with the help of EU Humanitarian Aid after people in Nigeria fled violence from Boko Haram.

The children of Alimi Abali and Yakaka Moussa run through the brush next to their home as their parents are interviewed in Fourkoulom refugee camp in Baga Sola, Chad on May 11, 2022. The camp was setup with the help of EU Humanitarian Aid after people in Nigeria fled violence from Boko Haram.

Boudoumi Monani, 83,poses for a photo in Amma refugee camp near Baga Sola, Chad on May 12, 2022. Boudoumi Monani, was shot by Boko Haram in 2020 after returning from morning prayers. They attacked the camp at 5am, and when he was wounded the bullet went through his chest and into his right arm, later needing amputation. The camp was setup with the help of EU Humanitarian Aid and children are supported by Humanitie & Inclusion NGO, after people fled violence from Boko Haram.

Men pray under the shade of a tree at the Kousseri refugee camp in Baga Sola, Chad on May 11, 2022. The camp was setup with the help of EU Humanitarian Aid after people in Nigeria fled violence from Boko Haram.

A man picks up a bag of grain at a food distribution run by the WFP in Fourkoulom refugee camp in Baga Sola, Chad on May 11, 2022. The camp was setup with the help of EU Humanitarian Aid after people in Nigeria fled violence from Boko Haram.

Two women fill up water containers from a well next to a clinic run by the NGO Concern in Fourkoulom refugee camp in Baga Sola, Chad on May 11, 2022. The camp was setup with the help of EU Humanitarian Aid after people in Nigeria fled violence from Boko Haram.

Midwife Nowjela Inta (L) Looks on at women waiting to enter the maternity ward in a clinic run by the NGO Concern in Fourkoulom refugee camp in Baga Sola, Chad on May 11, 2022. The camp was setup with the help of EU Humanitarian Aid after people in Nigeria fled violence from Boko Haram.

Drawings are seen on a wall as a young woman carries an empty water container to a well next to a clinic run by the NGO Concern in Fourkoulom refugee camp in Baga Sola, Chad on May 11, 2022. The camp was setup with the help of EU Humanitarian Aid after people in Nigeria fled violence from Boko Haram.

Asitea pumps water for a man washing for prayers at the Kousseri refugee camp in Baga Sola, Chad on May 11, 2022. The camp was setup with the help of EU Humanitarian Aid after people in Nigeria fled violence from Boko Haram.

A village is seen as a UN Plane lands in Baga Sola in Chad on May 11, 2022.

Ussman Mohamed (R) helps his children load food given by the WFP onto a camel in Fourkoulom refugee camp in Baga Sola, Chad on May 11, 2022. The camp was setup with the help of EU Humanitarian Aid after people in Nigeria fled violence from Boko Haram.

A village is seen as a UN Plane lands in Baga Sola in Chad on May 11, 2022.

Ussman Mohamed (R) helps his children load food given by the WFP onto a camel in Fourkoulom refugee camp in Baga Sola, Chad on May 11, 2022. The camp was setup with the help of EU Humanitarian Aid after people in Nigeria fled violence from Boko Haram.

ANDREW CABALLERO-REYNOLDS / UNION EUROPÉENNE, 2022

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